LLP V/s Private Limited Company: Which Structure Is Best For Your Startup?

Choosing the right company structure is crucial for the long-term success of your startup. The structure you opt for will influence various aspects such as personal liability protection, tax benefits, fundraising capabilities, credibility, branding, and succession planning. Therefore, it's important to make an informed decision. Two popular options for startups in India are the Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) and the Private Limited Company (Pvt. Ltd.). This comprehensive guide will help you understand the key differences between LLP Company Registration and Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration to make the best choice for your business.

Understanding LLP and Private Limited Company:

What is a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)?

An LLP is a corporate body formed and incorporated under the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008. It is a partnership where partners enjoy limited liability protection, meaning they are only responsible for their actions and not for the mistakes or losses of other partners. An LLP is recognized as a separate legal entity, distinct from its partners, and follows the rule of perpetual succession. At least two partners are required to form an LLP, formalized through an agreement of partnership.

What is a Private Limited Company (Pvt. Ltd.)?

A Private Limited Company (Pvt. Ltd.) is defined under Section 2(68) of the Companies Act, 2013. It is a privately held company that restricts the transfer of its shares and limits the number of its shareholders to a maximum of 200. This structure is often preferred for product-based startups due to its fundraising potential, limited liability protection, and professional image. At least two members (directors) are needed to register a private company.

LLP vs Private Limited Company: Registration and Formation Process:

LLP Registration:

The process for LLP Registration involves several steps:

  • DSC and DPIN: Partners must obtain a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) and a Designated Partners Identification Number (DPIN).
  • Company Name: Select a unique name for the LLP as per the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) guidelines.
  • FiLLiP Form: Fill out the Form for Incorporation of Limited Liability Partnership (FiLLiP), which includes details about partners, the LLP agreement, and registered office proofs.
  • LLP Agreement: Draft and notarize an LLP agreement, outlining the partnership terms, which must be filed with the MCA within 30 days of incorporation.
  • COI and PAN/TAN: Upon verification, the Registrar of Companies (ROC) issues a Certificate of Incorporation (COI). Then, apply for the company's PAN and TAN.

Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration:

The Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration process includes:

  • DSC and DIN: Obtain a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) and a Director Identification Number (DIN) for the directors.
  • Company Name Reservation: Use Part A of the SPICe+ Form to reserve a unique company name, indicating the company type and industry.
  • SPICe+ Form: Fill in additional details in Part B of the SPICe+ Form, including registered office proof, directors' details, and necessary documents.
  • E-MOA and E-AOA: Draft the electronic Memorandum of Association (e-MOA) and Articles of Association (e-AOA) and submit them with the SPICe+ Form.
  • COI, PAN, and TAN: After verification, the ROC issues the Certificate of Incorporation (COI), along with PAN and TAN.

Advantages of LLP Registration:

  • Limited Liability Protection: LLP Registration provides personal asset protection, ensuring partners are not held liable for business debts beyond their contributions.
  • Tax Benefits: LLPs are exempt from Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT), allowing partners to receive their profit shares without additional tax burdens.
  • Limited Compliance: LLPs have fewer regulatory requirements compared to other business structures, reducing administrative overhead.
  • Operational Flexibility: The LLP agreement allows partners to distribute roles and responsibilities flexibly, fostering a collaborative management style.
  • Perpetual Succession: The LLP remains unaffected by changes in partnership, ensuring business continuity and stability.
  • Separate Legal Identity: An LLP is a separate legal entity, providing clarity in legal and contractual relationships.

Advantages of Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration:

  • Ease in Fundraising: Pvt. Ltd. company Registration can raise funds through loans, deposits, and equity, attracting banks, financial institutions, and investors.
  • Protection Against Creditors: Directors are shielded from personal liability for company debts, offering protection during financial difficulties.
  • Limited Liability Protection: Directors enjoy limited liability, safeguarding their personal assets in case of business failure.
  • Tax Advantages: Private company Registrations benefit from tax exemptions and lower corporate tax rates, providing financial relief for startups.
  • Perpetual Succession: The company continues to exist despite changes in directorship, ensuring uninterrupted operations.
  • Flexible Management: The private company structure allows owners to delegate management authority to the Board of Directors, facilitating efficient decision-making.

Disadvantages of LLP Registration:

  • Difficulty in Fundraising: Investors are generally reluctant to invest in LLPs due to the requirement to become partners, limiting fundraising options.
  • Heavy Penalty on Non-Compliance: Non-compliance with LLP regulations incurs significant penalties, adding to the financial burden.
  • Limited Professional Scope: LLPs are restricted to specific professions like law, accounting, consultancy, and architecture.
  • Lack of Mismanagement Provisions: The LLP Act, 2008, does not address issues of mismanagement and oppression, potentially leading to workplace conflicts.

Disadvantages of Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration:

  • Administrative Burden: Regular compliance with tax filings, financial reports, and meeting minutes increases administrative workload.
  • Complicated Accounts: Growing startups may face complex accounting requirements, necessitating professional accounting services.
  • Shared Ownership: Shared ownership can lead to slower decision-making, internal conflicts, and compromised autonomy.
  • Restricted Share Transfer: The transfer of shares is limited by the Articles of Association, making it difficult for shareholders to exit the company.

Key Differences Between LLP and Private Limited Company:

Partners/Directors Required:

  • LLP: Minimum 2 partners, no maximum limit.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Minimum 2 directors, maximum 15 directors.

Board Meetings:

  • LLP: Not required.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Four board meetings annually.

Statutory Audit:

  • LLP: Mandatory if partner contributions exceed ₹25 lakhs or annual turnover exceeds ₹40 lakhs.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Always mandatory.


  • LLP: Up to the agreed contribution.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Up to capital contribution.

Ownership Status:

  • LLP: Both the Owners and managers are equally responsible.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Shareholders own the company, but management is handled by directors.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

  • LLP: Allowed through the approval route.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Allowed through both automatic and approval routes.


  • LLP: Fixed rate of 30% on total income, with an additional surcharge for income over ₹1 crore.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Fixed rate of 25% on total income, increasing to 30% for income over ₹400 crores.

Annual General Meeting:

  • LLP: Not required.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Required annually.

Share Transferability:

  • LLP: Transfer requires a resolution with existing partners' agreement.
  • Pvt. Ltd.: Restricted by Articles of Association.


Choosing between LLP Registration and Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration depends on your business nature and strategic goals. Service-based startups may benefit more from an LLP structure due to its flexibility and tax advantages. In contrast, product-based startups might find a Pvt. Ltd. structure more suitable for its fundraising capabilities and professional image.

If you need assistance with LLP Company Registration or Pvt. Ltd. Company Registration, LegalRaasta offers comprehensive registration services for both structures. Contact our experts for a consultation to make an informed decision and set your startup on the path to success.

Parmeet Chhabra, a skilled content writer and editor at LegalRaasta since 2020, with a writing journey of over 5 years, specializes in crafting informative web pages and blogs over diverse domains like education, legal laws, government licences, web development, etc.

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