Input Tax Credit or ITC
Inputs are all those goods that went into creating the finished products provided to the final consumer. Businesses are charged GST on goods/services that are used as inputs. The ITC mechanism allows GST registered businesses to receive refunds on the GST paid for purchasing all inputs. This helps prevent the cascading taxation effect, which was the primary reason behind the introduction of the GST.
For instance: GST payable on the supply of the final product of a manufacturer is Rs. 850 and the GST paid on inputs is Rs. 725. The manufacturer can claim the Rs. 725 as ITC. This brings the net tax payable at the time of supply to Rs. 125 only (Rs. 850 – Rs. 725).
Under the previous indirect tax regime of levy of Service Tax, VAT, and Excise – a lot of input tax credit was not properly utilized.
Who are eligible to claim Input Tax Credit?
ITC is available only to those entities who have registered under the GST Act. Only GST registered businesses can claim ITC on the tax paid for the purchase of any business relevant inputs.
Who cannot claim ITC?
Input Tax Credit can be claimed only for business purposes. It is not available for goods or services exclusively used for:
- Personal use,
- Exempt supplies,
- Supplies for which ITC is specifically not available.
Apart from the above, there are some other cases where ITC will be reversed. Such as Credit Note issued to ISD, Non-payment of invoices within 180 days, assets bought partly or wholly for exempted supplies or personal use, etc.
Conditions for claiming Input Tax Credit
- GST invoice showing details of tax paid is necessary,
- The goods on which GST has been paid have been received by the consumer,
- The applicant has filed the relevant tax returns,
- The supplier had paid the due tax to the government,
- The ITC applicant is registered under GST,
- If goods were received in installments, ITC can be claimed only after the final lot has been received.
ITC cannot be claimed if:
- Composition tax registered entities paying GST on inputs,
- If depreciation has been claimed on the tax part of a capital good,
- On goods not used as inputs such as supplies for personal use,
- On goods on which ITC is not applicable under the GST Act (exempted goods).
Input tax credits can be used as:
- CGST input tax credits are allowed to be used to pay CGST and IGST,
- SGST input tax credits are allowed to be used to pay SGST and IGST,
- IGST input tax credits are allowed to be used to pay CGST, SGST, and IGST.